Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan blames US-based cleric Fethullah Gulen for last week’s bloody attempted coup.
Suspected Gulenists are now being purged in their thousands in a wave of arrests and sackings and Mr Erdogan has declared a state of emergency.
But what do we know about the movement, and what does it want?
What is the Gulen movement?
A well-organised community of people – not a political party – named after the US-based Islamic cleric Fethullah Gulen.
He is regarded by followers as a spiritual leader and sometimes described as Turkey’s second most powerful man.
The imam promotes a tolerant Islam which emphasises altruism, modesty, hard work and education.
He is also a recluse with a heart condition and diabetes who lives in a country estate in the US state of Pennsylvania
The movement – known in Turkey as Hizmet, or service – runs schools all over Turkey and around the world, including in Turkic former Soviet Republics, Muslim countries such as Pakistan and Western nations including Romania and the US, where it runs more than 100 schools.
Followers are said to be numerous in Turkey, possibly in the millions, and are believed to hold influential positions in institutions from the police and secret services to the judiciary and Mr Erdogan’s ruling AK Party itself.
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